How to Keep Your Drinking Bottle, Flask, Germ Free

There is no home that does not have a reusable water bottle either plastic or metal. As you go along the road, you buy a bottle of water sometimes you throw it away at other times you take it home to reuse for other fluid content.

But the question that comes to mind is how often do you clean them? How well do you clean them?

Our water bottles are often stored in the store, kitchen or somewhere around the house. Even with their lids closed they can begin to have bad smells coming from keeping them in an unclean state.

Here are some of the most effective ways drink bottles clean and germ-free;

  • If you have a dishwasher, you can drop it inside for a thorough cleaning
  • Fill the bottle up with hot water add some drops of dishwashing soap then you can use a bottle brush or even old toothbrush to wash it in an out.
  • After washing with soap and water, refill the bottle with water and then add some a few tablespoons of vinegar.
  • Leave it to soak overnight in order to kill the germs then rinse out and allow to dry naturally.
  • You can use baking or bicarb soda and warm water. Add a few teaspoons of baking soda, warm water into the bottle and allow it to soak for some hours then rinse out with hot water and soap.
  • Freezing also can help kill bacteria. You can store your bottles in the freezer if you have space.
  • After washing and ensuring it is germ-free, allow the bottles dry properly before storing them. Store them with the lids open so as to prevent the breeding of bacteria.

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How to Make Healthy Home-Made Peanut Butter

Peanut is a delicious and nutritious nut that everyone can snack on. It can be eaten alone or use as a compliment to other foods.

In Nigeria, many people do different food combinations with groundnut. Some of which are garri (cassava flakes) and groundnut, garden egg and groundnut, boli ( smoked plantain) and groundnut, peanut butter for the bread. It is even used for cooking soup too.

Today, you will be learning how to make home-made peanut butter that is natural with no sugar, salt or preservatives.


  • Raw or already roasted Groundnuts (of your desired quantity)
  • Garri
  • Salt

Method ( Roasting)

You should follow this procedure if you starting to make your peanut from the scratch

  • Pick stones from the raw groundnuts and soak in hot water until the water changes colour
  • Drain the water out, sprinkle a little salt and spread it on a tray out in the sun or oven. Dry until the wetness disappears. Roast in a pot or a pan
  • To make roast the groundnuts, preheat the pan by placing it on fire for a few minute before sprinkling the garri instead of sand in it.
  • Add your groundnut and stir on 5-minute interval so that it would roast evenly
  • Let it roast until you are satisfied till you get the level of brownness you want.
  • Remove it from pan and place in a colander or sieve for it to cool
  • After some minutes, you can taste it to enjoy your crunchy peanut


  • After the destoning, selection, soaking and salting of the peanuts which has been explained in details above.
  • You need to preheat your oven to about 350 degrees
  • Pour the already salted groundnut into your oven pan
  • Stir on a five minutes interval and let it roast for 15 to 20 minutes
  • Allow it cool for some minutes and store in an airtight container to help it remain crunchy.

Peanut Butter

After your roasted peanut is ready before it gets to room temperature, pour it into a clean cloth and dehusk by rubbing the clothes together. The crispier it is the easier it would be when grinding

  • Blow out the husk and place the groundnut into your food processor or mixer.
  • You can add other things like salt, sugar and pepper powder (this is optional).
  •  Do not fill the mixer jar to the brim with your peanuts.
  •  First, pulse it, then increase the speed of your food processor or mixer to make it into a smooth paste
  • When it cools, store in a plastic or glass airtight containers
  • Peanut butter can be stored for 2-4 weeks in a refrigerator and up to 6 months in a freezer.
  • Ensure that you stir the peanut butter thoroughly before every use.
  • Peanut is good for everyone (as long as you do not have allergies). It can be used as a weaning food for babies and a perfect accompaniment for finger foods, spread and cereals.

Note: If you are using a store-bought roasted peanut, you can toast and stir in a pan for about 5 minutes. Then pour it into the food processor for a good wipe into peanut butter.

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