School Age

5 Values Your Children Should Have By Age 5

Most parent believe their children are not old enough to know some things, but the earlier you put some thoughts, ideas and values in your kids, the better for you, your child and the world at large. By the time your kids are age 5, they should have these important values instilled in them, and if your child is already over 5 years of age, it’s still not too late. The reason why most parents have problems with their kids is because they wait until it’s too late before teaching their kids values which will make them into men and women enviable character.

Here are some of the values you should instill in your child;

1. Honesty

Never condone dishonesty, make sure your child tells the truth even from an early stage,  live by example and frown at every little act of dishonesty. When you are honest, they will follow your path. Encourage them to be honest with their friends, and when your kids lie, try to make them say the truth instead of punishing or raising your voice to them.

2. Justice

By age 5 your kids already know what’s right and wrong, but they also need to know what to do when a wrong is done them. And when they do something that is wrong, they should understand that it merits punishment and when they see their mate being bullied at school, they should offer to help. Putting a sense of fairness in your kids will ensure they treat people right.

3. Determination

Young children easily give up after a few trials, simply refraining from praising your child too much will help them become more determined to do more and achieve more. If your child does the things that they should normally do like brushing their teeth, wearing their clothes, these are normal things they should do, so it doesn’t deserve praise. When you only praise your kid when they deserve it, your kids will keep wanting to do things that’ll impress you enough to praise them. Help your children develop determination by encouraging  them to do things that don’t come easily-and to praise them for their initiative.

4. Consideration

Teach your child to be considerate, by making them pity with you in a situation, to do this, empathise with your child and use lessons they can easily understand to teach them. If your child is able to see that words or actions can work to make someone feel better, they’re already learning the value of consideration. Teach them to be kind to others as this will make them feel better.


5. Love

Your child loves you, and your husband but that doesn’t mean they know the value of love. Children love fiercely and affectionately, but if you want your kid to keep displaying and valuing love in years to come, you need to teach them to always work to reciprocate generous acts of love to the people around them.

The best way to teach your kids all these values is to live by example. Kids learn better by looking at what is happening around them, show your little ones love and consideration and they’d do the same.

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Common Childhood Cancers And Their Treatments   

The body is made up of cells that are vital to life. When some of these cells grow out of control, they become abnormal.

The body process for growth of new cells involves replacing old cells with new ones but sometimes the process goes wrong and then new cells are formed even when the body does not need demand the old cell refuse to die.

These extra cells can form a tumour, which is either benign or malignant. Malignant tumours tend to be cancerous because they invade surrounding tissues while benign tumours are not cancerous. There are over 200 different types of cancer. Cancer that occurs in adult varies largely from those that occur in children. The commonest types of cancer that affect children are;

  1. Leukemia
  2. Brain and spinal cord tumors
  3. Neuroblastoma
  4. Lymphoma (including both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin)
  5. Rhabdomyosarcoma
  6. Retinoblastoma
  7. Bone cancer (including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma)
  8. Wilms tumor


Leukemia is cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. It accounts for 30% of all the cases of cancer affecting children. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) are the commonest types of Leukaemia found in children. Children with this disease often suffer weakness, bone and joint pain, fatigue, bleeding, fever, weight loss etc.  As soon as acute leukaemia is detected, it needs to be treated quickly because it grows fast.

Brain and Spinal cord tumours

Most brain tumours in children occur in the lower parts of the brain causing blurred vision headaches, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and seizures, finding it hard to handle objects and walk properly. Spinal cord tumours are not as common as brain tumours. Brain and Spinal cord tumours accounts for 26% of childhood cancer. It is second to Luekaemia in its prevalent among children.  There are different types of brain tumours that demands different treatment.


Neuroblastoma develops in infants and young children less than 10 years old. Usually, it grows from some nerve cells in the foetus.  This can occur in any part of the body but it usually starts in the belly as a swelling, which causes bone pain and fever.  It accounts for about 6% of childhood cancers.

Wilms Tumour

Wilms tumour also known as nephroblastoma affects the kidney. It is common among kids between 3 to 4 years old. It can present as a lump or swelling around the abdomen. Some of the symptoms are fever, pain, nausea, or poor appetite. Wilms tumour accounts for about 5% of childhood cancers.


Lymphomas affects the immune system cells known as lymphocytes. It also affects the bone marrow and other organs of the body. There are two main types of lymphoma -Hodgkin lymphoma (Hodgkin disease) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Some of the symptoms of lymphomas are weight loss, fever, sweats, tiredness, and swollen lymph nodes under the skin.


This type of cancer affects the cells responsible for the growth of skeletal muscles. It can start at any part of the body. It presents with swellings and pain at the part affected.


Retinoblastoma is the type of cancer that affects the eye. It usually occurs in children around the age of two, and it is rarely found in children older than 6. The child’s eye is unusual in the sense that when you shine a torch on the pupil it turns white instead of red.

Bone Cancers

This type of cancer affects the bones. It often occurs in teens and older kids but it can start at any age.  The two main types of bone cancer found in children are Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma.

Treatment of Childhood Cancers

The treatment for cancer depends on the type of cancer involved and how advanced it is. These treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, stem cell transplants and targeted therapy.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy refers to drugs that kill actively growing cancerous cells. Cancer cells grow rapidly without heeding the normal signals of the body that control the growth of cells.

Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy, also known as targeted therapy or biotherapy. It is a cancer treatment that invigorates a patient’s immune system so it is equipped to fight disease. This is done in partnership with other cancer treatment.

Radiation therapy: Radiation is a form of X-rays that are used to create images of areas of the body that cannot be easily seen. Cancer treatment requires higher doses of radiation. It works by preventing and destroying the growth and reproduction of dividing cells

Bone marrow transplant: This involves the replacement of the faulty spongy tissue or stem cells inside the bones.  These stem cells are the ones that develop into red blood cells, which helps to fight infections. This is used in the treatment of bone cancer.

Surgery: This involves undergoing an operation to take out a tumour. This is used for some cancers. Sometimes other treatments are given as well as an operation.

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